Chapter 27: Planets of the Solar System

solar system
the sun and all of the planets and other bodies that travel around it
planet
any of the primary bodies that orbit the sun; a similar body that orbits another star
solar nebula
a large cloud of gas and dust such as the one that formed our solar system
planetesimal
a small body from which a planet originated in the early stages of development of the solar system
gas giants
a planet that has a deep massive atmosphere, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune
differentiation
the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function
core
the central part of the Earth
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
crust
the outer layer of the Earth
outgassing
release of gasses from Earth’s interior
nebular hypothesis
Solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula
geocentric
models of the universe based on the assumption that the sun, moon, and planets all orbit Earth
eccentricity
the degree of elongation of an elliptical orbit
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object
terrestrial planet
one of the highly dense planets nearest to the sun; Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Earth
greenhouse effect
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
runaway greenhouse effect
extreme greenhouse effect seen on Venus
Kuiper belt
a region of the solar system that is just beyon the orbit of Neptune and that contains small bodies made mostly of ice